Sunday, 13 January 2019

20 Signs: For Not Drinking Enough Water!

20 Signs: For Not Drinking Enough Water!

As you undoubtedly already heard, the daily recommended amount of water is eight glasses or about 64 fluid-ounces of water. This is actually a myth, and most people can get by fine by drinking water whenever they’re thirsty. Unfortunately, most people around the world don’t drink enough water to compensate for water expulsion through breathing, sneezing, talking, sweating, crying, and urinating. Symptoms of not drinking enough water include feeling thirsty, obviously, but here are 20 other ways our bodies are screaming at us to drink more water.

Dark urine
Ironically, not having enough water in your body can lead to frequent visits to the bathroom. If you’re going to the bathroom up to 10 times a day and find the color of your urine to be dark-yellow instead of clear or pale-yellow, then it might be one of the ways your body’s needs more water. It’s either that or you’re taking a certain medication that’s altering the color of your urine.

Muscle cramps
People will experience extreme muscle cramps when they’re dehydrated but remain physically active. This is a dangerous mix since you release more water through sweat and heavy breathing. Experiencing muscle cramps or spasms in the middle of a workout session might be an indication that you need to drink more fluids.

Mental sluggishness
People suffering from even the slightest case of dehydration will suffer slight bouts of mental impairment. If you’re not drinking enough, concentrating on work might seem like an impossible task, no matter how light your workload.

Next time you experience a headache, no matter how minor, trying downing a glass of water. Our brains are about 80% water, and losing water causes our brain tissues to contract, leading to pain around multiple areas of our brains. If after a glass of water and/or pain meds doesn’t do the trick, you need to consult a doctor immediately.

Dry skin, mouth, and eyes
Our skin needs water to produce natural moisturizing oil, replenish our tear supply, and maintain a healthy saliva level. Not having enough water can impair all three organs. Common symptoms that afflict these organs include a lack of skin elasticity, dry coughs, and red eyes.

Mid-day naps are great for giving us a much-needed boost of energy. However, if you feel even more tired after waking up than before nodding off, dehydration might be the culprit. A mid-afternoon slump can most likely be easily fixed by drinking a couple more glasses of water daily.

Lack of sweat despite physical activity
We sweat in order to cool down during and after physical activity. However, if you’ve already run laps but hardly broke a sweat, your body doesn’t have enough water to spare. Be sure to take in a couple glasses of water before and after a workout.

Perpetual hunger
Being dehydrated can play tricks on our bodies. For instance, in extreme cases of dehydration, our brains might perceive thirst with hunger. No matter how many snacks or meals you eat, your hunger will never diminish. Be sure to end every meal with a glass of water or organic juice to bring your fluid levels back up.

Smelly breath
No matter how disgusting you think it is, spit is actually beneficial for keeping our mouths clean. We stop producing spit in our sleep, and this is what causes nasty, funky morning breath. The principle is the same in cases of dehydration; if you don’t have enough water, you can’t produce spit, forcing people to hold their breaths when talking to you.

Since our mental faculties become impaired when we don’t drink enough water, it’s not unsurprising that we can experience mood swings. Dehydration leads to the breaking down of several bodily functions, including rational thinking. When we don’t drink enough, a simple “hello” from a co-worker might send you off the rails.

Sugar craving
This is most common in people suffering from dehydration after a workout session. When cooling down, you might feel the need to put food in your mouth. This is due to decreased glycogen levels, and our bodies want to keep the sugar ratio balance in check. Chocolate cake might be enticing, but it’s better to start off with a couple glasses of water, just to see if dehydration really is indeed the culprit of a sudden need for sweets.

Trouble sleeping
Not having enough water in our bodies can disrupt our sleep. Dehydration can lead to snoring and muscle spasms in your sleep – two things that can jolt you awake in the middle of the night. However, drinking water right before bed can wake you up by forcing you to go to the bathroom, ruining your sleep cycle. Instead, drink your body weight’s recommended amount of water before 8 PM; you’ll be thoroughly hydrated but have expelled all the urine from your body before climbing into bed.

Loss of muscles
The muscles around our bodies are mostly made up of water. Not having enough water can cause muscle spasms and a loss of muscle mass. No matter how many weights you lift, you might notice that you’re not getting optimal gains and might even be losing muscle mass. Drinking a glass or two before and after a workout can help you build your muscles right back up.

Prolonged bouts of illness
Water helps our bodies flush out toxins through urination, sneezing, and coughing. Without sufficient water in our bodies, many of our organs will begin to deteriorate, including our kidneys. What happens when we don’t have enough fluids to expel these toxins is that our organs steal water from other areas of our bodies, including our blood, which can potentially lead to a whole new range of health problems.

Problems digesting
Our digestive tracts are lined with a naturally occurring mucus which helps move food down the system and protects our organs from gastric acids. Without enough water, the mucus lining will become thinner and less effective in moving food and shielding our organs from the acids. Heartburn and indigestion will usually occur after our stomach acids roam freely.

Accelerated aging
We mentioned earlier that dehydration can affect our skin due to the inability to produce the natural moisturizing oils. What this can do is actually cause us to look a lot older than we actually are. Looking young requires having enough fluid to keep your moisturized, and long bouts of minor dehydration can cause premature lines and wrinkles.

Weight gain
Dehydration can actually cause an increase in body weight. Without enough water in our systems, our bodies will latch onto anything they can get from anywhere, including the salty and sweet snacks you mistakenly ate to fight off thirst/hunger. You’ll also increase your carb load through sweet or salty treats in the attempt to reduce your thirst.

Aching joints
Our joints are in constant need of water to stay squishy and absorb shocks. The cushioning between joints will deteriorate in cases of dehydration since they don’t absorb water from other sources. Unexpected cracked knuckles might be a way that your body is in dire need of hydration.

Cholesterol imbalance
When we become dehydrated, our bodies respond by commanding it to increase its production of cholesterol. This thickens our cellular walls in order to retain as much moisture as possible. As a result of this defensive mechanism, our blood cholesterol levels will spike and become harder to maintain.

Respiratory problems
From our noses to our bronchi, the entire respiratory tract needs an ample lining of mucus to prevent foreign bodies from passing into our lungs. Without proper hydration, the mucus lining will become thin, allowing more and more airborne pollutants to enter and reside in our lungs. This opens our lungs to a host of different problems, including allergies and excessive, dry coughing.


Posted Coillected by 

Monday, 24 December 2018


The habit of washing hands with soap before handling food, whether it is to eat or to cook, can eliminate many illnesses. Washing hands also prevents transfer of bacteria from hands to food. Hand washing with soap is also one of the most effective and inexpensive way to prevent diarrheal and acute respiratory infections, which take the lives of millions of children in developing countries every year. Yet, despite its lifesaving potential, hand washing with soap is seldom practiced and difficult to promote.

Turning hand washing with soap before eating and after using the toilet into an ingrained habit could save more lives than any single vaccine or medical intervention, cutting deaths from diarrhea by almost half and deaths from acute respiratory infections by one-quarter.


·        Wash your hands with water and soap for at least 20 seconds

·        Make sure to wash between the fingers, under the finger  nails and the wrists

·        Rinse well and then dry your hands


·        Wash your hands before, during and after preparing a meal

·        Wash hands before eating

·        Wash after using the restroom

·        Wash after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing

·        Wash after handling raw meat, poultry and seafood

·        Wash after touching garbage, after touching pets or other animals

How to wash your hands:
1.Wet hands with water
2.     Apply enough soap and handwash to cover all hand surfaces
3.     Rub hands palm to palm
4.     Right palm over the other hand with interlaced fingers and vice versa
5.     Palm to palm with fingers interlaced
6.     Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked
7.     Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa
8.     Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa
9.     Rince hands with water
10. Dry thoroughly with towel. Duration of procedure: At least 15 seconds

Posting by:  DOSHTI

Source from : Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) 
The website of the Occupational Dermatology Education and Research Centre

Wednesday, 12 October 2016


Human Error is commonly defined as “a failure of a planned action to achieve a desired outcome”. Error-inducing factors exist at individual, job, and organisational levels, and when poorly managed can increase the likelihood of an error occurring in the workplace. When errors occur in hazardous environments, there is a greater potential for things to go wrong. By understanding human error, responsible parties can plan for likely error scenarios, and implement barriers to prevent or mitigate the occurrence of potential errors.
Errors result from a variety of influences, but the underlying mental processes that lead to error are consistent, allowing for the development of a human error typology. An understanding of the different error types is critical for the development of effective error prevention and mitigation tools and strategies.  A variety of these tools and strategies must be implemented to target the full range of error types if they are to be effective.
Errors can occur in both the planning and execution stages of a task. Plans can be adequate or inadequate, and actions (behaviour) can be intentional or unintentional. If a plan is adequate, and the intentional action follows that plan, then the desired outcome will be achieved. If a plan is adequate, but an unintentional action does not follow the plan, then the desired outcome will not be achieved. Similarly, if a plan is inadequate, and an intentional action follows the plan, the desired outcome will again not be achieved. These error points are demonstrated in the figure below and explained in the example that follows.

Human error – failures in planning and execution

Human error typology

Failures of action, or unintentional actions, are classified as skill-based errors. This error type is categorised into slips of action and lapses of memory. Failures in planning are referred to as mistakes, which are categorised as rule-based mistakes and knowledge-based mistakes.

Skill-based Errors

Skill-based errors tend to occur during highly routine activities, when attention is diverted from a task, either by thoughts or external factors. Generally when these errors occur, the individual has the right knowledge, skills, and experience to do the task properly. The task has probably been performed correctly many times before. Even the most skilled and experienced people are susceptible to this type of error. As tasks become more routine and less novel, they can be performed with less conscious attention – the more familiar a task, the easier it is for the mind to wander. This means that highly experienced people may be more likely to encounter this type of error than those with less experience. This also means that re-training and disciplinary action are not appropriate responses to this type of error.
A memory lapse occurs after the formation of the plan and before execution, while the plan is stored in the brain. This type of error refers to instances of forgetting to do something, losing place in a sequence, or even forgetting the overall plan. 
A slip of action is an unintentional action. This type of error occurs at the point of task execution, and includes actions performed on autopilot, skipping or reordering a step in a procedure, performing the right action on the wrong object, or performing the wrong action on the right object. Typical examples include:
·         missing a step in an isolation sequence
·         pressing the wrong button or pulling the wrong lever
·         loosening a valve when intending to tighten it
·         transposing digits when copying numbers


Mistakes are failures of planning, where a plan is expected to achieve the desired outcome, however due to inexperience or poor information the plan is not appropriate. People with less knowledge and experience may be more likely to experience mistakes. However, as mistakes are not committed ‘on purpose’, disciplinary action is an inappropriate response to these types of error.  Knowledge-based mistakes result from ‘trial and error’. Insufficient knowledge about how to perform a task results in the development of a solution that is incorrectly expected to work.

Rule-based mistakes refer to situations where the use or disregard of a particular rule or set of rules results in an undesired outcome.
There are three types of rule-based mistakes:
·         incorrect application of a good rule
·         correct application of a bad rule
·         failure to apply a good rule.
 Some rules that are appropriate for use in one situation will be inappropriate in another. Incorrect application of a good rule occurs when a rule has worked well on previous occasions, so it is applied to a similar situation with the incorrect expectation that it will work. Sometimes rules are inappropriate or incorrect, and adherence leads to negative outcomes.


Failure to apply a good rule is also known as a violation. Violations are classified as human error when the intentional action does not achieve the desired outcome. Violations tend to be well-intentioned, targeting desired outcomes such as task completion and simplification. Where violations involve acts of sabotage designed to cause damage, the planned action (violation) has achieved the desired outcome (damage). This type of behaviour does not constitute human error and, following investigation, should be managed through the application of appropriate disciplinary measures. There are three main types of violations pertaining to human error: routine, situational, and exceptional.

A routine violation is one which is commonplace and committed by most members of the workplace. For example, in a particular office building it is against the rules for personnel to use the fire escape stairwell to move between floors, but it is common practice for people to do so anyway.

A situational violation occurs, as its name suggests, in response to situational factors, including excessive time pressure, workplace design, and inadequate or inappropriate equipment. When confronted with an unexpected or inappropriate situation, personnel may believe that the normal rule is no longer safe, or that it will not achieve the desired outcome, and so they decide to violate that rule. Situational violations generally occur as a once-off, unless the situation triggering the violation is not corrected, in which case the violation may become routine over time.

An exceptional violation is a fairly rare occurrence and happens in abnormal and emergency situations. This type of violation transpires when something is going wrong and personnel believe that the rules no longer apply, or that applying a rule will not correct the problem. Personnel choose to violate the rule believing that they will achieve the desired outcome.

Preventing violations requires an understanding of how motivation drives behaviour. Planned behaviour (intentional action) is driven by an individual’s attitude towards that behaviour. Further, individual decision-making is primarily influenced by the consequences the individual expects to receive as a result of their behaviour, which can influence their attitude towards that behaviour.

In most organisations, consequences associated with risk management behaviours compete against those associated with productivity behaviours.  While ‘Safe Production’ is a popular phrase, risk management activities necessarily increase the amount of time required to complete a task. Productivity outcomes are generally more predictable and definitive than those associated with risk management (i.e. definitely achieving a target versus potentially avoiding an incident).  So the perceived value of productivity behaviour may be greater than that of risk management behaviour.

Note: Violations are classified as human error only when they fail to achieve the desired outcome. Where a violation does achieve the desired outcome, and does not cause any other undesired outcomes, this is not human error. These types of violations may include violation of a bad rule, such as a procedure that, if followed correctly, would trip the plant. In such cases, a review of the rules and procedures is advisable.

Post by 
Department of Ocuupational Safety & Health Training Institute