Tuesday, 10 September 2019

Ingress Protection Rating

Many products undergo a variety of tests before they reach the market. These tests include product safety testing, electromagnetic compatibility, vibration testing and many others.
Products used indoors or outdoors are often tested against “ingress,” that is, the product’s resistance to water, dust and foreign objects. There are several reasons for ingress testing, including safety, functionality and product marketing.
Many products require insulation from outside elements in order to function properly. Those outside elements include mist, steam, sprayed water, sand, oil and even fingers, just to name a few. Ingress protection testing helps determine whether a particular product is going to function appropriately when placed in the field.
Different products require different levels of testing and different types of testing. Generally, ingress protection is divided into testing for ingress from foreign objects or liquids. With many products, the point where it would be most likely to fail comes at a seam between two parts.
The higher the protection degree, the more watertight the casing will be. However, when installing an enclosure outdoors, exposure to weather conditions can cause temperature variations.

What is an IP rating?
IP (or "Ingress Protection") ratings are defined in international standard EN 60529 (British BS EN 60529:1992, European IEC 60509:1989). They are used to define levels of sealing effectiveness of electrical enclosures against intrusion from foreign bodies (tools, dirt etc) and moisture.
What do the numbers in an IP Rating mean?
The numbers that follow IP each have a specific meaning. The first indicates the degree of protection (of people) from moving parts, as well as the protection of enclosed equipment from foreign bodies. The second defines the protection level that the enclosure enjoys from various forms of moisture (drips, sprays, submersion etc). The tables below should help make sense of it:
IP Ratings - what they mean.

IP Rated Enclosures - quick find chart
A number replaced by x indicates that the enclosure is not rated for that spec.
First Digit (Intrusion Protection)
       0.   (or X - see section below): No special protection. Not rated (or no rating             supplied) for protection against ingress of this type.
  1. Protection from a large part of the body such as a hand (but no protection from deliberate access); from solid objects greater than 50mm in diameter.
  2. Protection against fingers or other object not greater than 80mm in length and 12mm in diameter (accidental finger contact).
  3. Protection from entry by tools, wires etc, with a diameter of 2.5 mm or more.
  4. Protection against solid objects larger than 1mm (wires, nails, screws, larger insects and other potentially invasive small objects such as tools/small etc).
  5. Partial protection against dust that may harm equipment.
  6. Totally dust tight. Full protection against dust and other particulates, including a vacuum seal, tested against continuous airflow.
Second Digit (Moisture Protection)
        0.   (Or X - see section below): No protection.
  1. Protection against vertically falling droplets, such as condensation. Ensuring that no damage or interrupted functioning of components will be incurred when an item is upright.
  2. Protection against water droplets deflected up to 15° from vertical
  3. Protected against spray up to 60° from vertical.
  4. Protected against water splashes from all directions. Tested for a minimum of 10 minutes with an oscillating spray (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).
  5. Protection against low-pressure jets (6.3 mm) of directed water from any angle (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).
  6. Protection against direct high pressure jets.
  7. Protection against full immersion for up to 30 minutes at depths between 15 cm and 1 metre (limited ingress permitted with no harmful effects).
  8. Protection against extended immersion under higher pressure (i.e. greater depths). Precise parameters of this test will be set and advertised by the manufacturer and may include additional factors such as temperature fluctuations and flow rates, depending on equipment type.
  9. (K): Protection against high-pressure, high-temperature jet sprays, wash-downs or steam-cleaning procedures - this rating is most often seen in specific road vehicle applications (standard ISO 20653:2013 Road Vehicles - Degrees of protection).
IPX Ratings
Not an entirely valid IP rating, but still occasionally seen on websites offering enclosures (but more commonly lighting). The "x" simply denotes that the value for that number is missing. You can replace it with a zero, assuming that it has not ingress protection rating. This may not be the case, but better safe than sorry. The first number denotes foreign body ingress protection, the second moisture. So "x"5 for example, means that there is no defined protection from solid objects, but protection against low pressure water jets, while 5"x" would denote partial protection from dust, but no particular protection from moisture.

Our range
While we cover a huge range of electrical enclosures, our most common IP ratings are probably 65, 66, 67 and 68. So for quick reference, these are defined below:
  • IP65 Enclosure - IP rated as "dust tight" and protected against water projected from a nozzle.
  • IP66 Enclosure - IP rated as "dust tight" and protected against heavy seas or powerful jets of water.
  • IP 67 Enclosures - IP rated as "dust tight" and protected against immersion. for 30 minutes at depths 150mm - 1000mm
  • IP 68 Enclosures - IP rated as "dust tight" and protected against complete, continuous submersion in water.

Collected by 
Indian Safety Association

Source: National Technical Systems, DSM&T Company & Enclosure Company

Disclaimer: The information contained in this website is for general information purposes only Whilst we endeavour to keep the information up to date and correct, we make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability or availability with respect to the website or the information, products, services, or related graphics contained on the website for any purpose. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk.

Thursday, 5 September 2019

Best Practice to Pipe Marking

Pipe Marking
Basic instructions for pipe label design, and placement will help to improve facility efficiency and increase safety through visual communication.

Pipe Marking Importance
·         Safety-Eliminate accidents by minimizing identification errors.
·         Efficiency-No wasted time tracing pipes to their source.
·         Compliance - Reduce company liability and eliminate fines.

The standard specifies the primary and secondary means of identifying pipe contents, as well as the size, color and placement of the identification device.
The text legend (name of pipe content) and directional arrow remain the primary means of identifying pipe contents. Attaching arrows at one or both ends of the marker indicates flow direction. See the ANSI/ASME size chart and installation guide in the following sections for more details.
A secondary means of pipe marker identification is the color code of the marker. The terminology of inherently hazardous or nonhazardous has been removed from the standard, effective since 2007.
Other significant color changes in 2007 included the addition of Brown/White for combustible fluids and Orange/Black for toxic or corrosive fluids.  The standard also identified four additional “defined by user” color combinations for additional customization options on non-standard markers. Those exact colors are the recommended safety colors contained in the ANSI Z535.1 standard.
The updates to ANSI/ASME A13.1-2015 added oxidizing fluids to the definitions for Yellow/Black, but did not add any new colors to the standard.

  1. Obtain a legend list of all pipe contents in your plant.
  2. Collect the following data on your piping systems (this may require tracing lines to determine quantities and sizes):

– Pipe contents
– Outside diameter of pipe (including insulation)
– Quantity of markers needed per ASME/ANSI A13.1 or other standards
– Pressure
– Temperature
– To/From information
– Location of specific legends by area (for aid in installation)
***Note: You may be able to use blueprints or P&IDs if they are current instead of walking down all of your lines. Seton also offers Take-Off Services to help you determine your pipe marking needs.
  1. Select color of marker.

Other color codes may also be acceptable, as long as your choices are consistent and documented, and the affected workers are trained to understand the system.
 Use clear and simple terms to identify the contents of each pipe.
        Text should be easy to read from a distance
        Use a sans-serif font such as Arial or Helvetica

Source: Creative Safety Supply & Graphic Products

Collected by 
Indian Safety Association

Sunday, 13 January 2019

20 Signs: For Not Drinking Enough Water!

20 Signs: For Not Drinking Enough Water!

As you undoubtedly already heard, the daily recommended amount of water is eight glasses or about 64 fluid-ounces of water. This is actually a myth, and most people can get by fine by drinking water whenever they’re thirsty. Unfortunately, most people around the world don’t drink enough water to compensate for water expulsion through breathing, sneezing, talking, sweating, crying, and urinating. Symptoms of not drinking enough water include feeling thirsty, obviously, but here are 20 other ways our bodies are screaming at us to drink more water.

Dark urine
Ironically, not having enough water in your body can lead to frequent visits to the bathroom. If you’re going to the bathroom up to 10 times a day and find the color of your urine to be dark-yellow instead of clear or pale-yellow, then it might be one of the ways your body’s needs more water. It’s either that or you’re taking a certain medication that’s altering the color of your urine.

Muscle cramps
People will experience extreme muscle cramps when they’re dehydrated but remain physically active. This is a dangerous mix since you release more water through sweat and heavy breathing. Experiencing muscle cramps or spasms in the middle of a workout session might be an indication that you need to drink more fluids.

Mental sluggishness
People suffering from even the slightest case of dehydration will suffer slight bouts of mental impairment. If you’re not drinking enough, concentrating on work might seem like an impossible task, no matter how light your workload.

Next time you experience a headache, no matter how minor, trying downing a glass of water. Our brains are about 80% water, and losing water causes our brain tissues to contract, leading to pain around multiple areas of our brains. If after a glass of water and/or pain meds doesn’t do the trick, you need to consult a doctor immediately.

Dry skin, mouth, and eyes
Our skin needs water to produce natural moisturizing oil, replenish our tear supply, and maintain a healthy saliva level. Not having enough water can impair all three organs. Common symptoms that afflict these organs include a lack of skin elasticity, dry coughs, and red eyes.

Mid-day naps are great for giving us a much-needed boost of energy. However, if you feel even more tired after waking up than before nodding off, dehydration might be the culprit. A mid-afternoon slump can most likely be easily fixed by drinking a couple more glasses of water daily.

Lack of sweat despite physical activity
We sweat in order to cool down during and after physical activity. However, if you’ve already run laps but hardly broke a sweat, your body doesn’t have enough water to spare. Be sure to take in a couple glasses of water before and after a workout.

Perpetual hunger
Being dehydrated can play tricks on our bodies. For instance, in extreme cases of dehydration, our brains might perceive thirst with hunger. No matter how many snacks or meals you eat, your hunger will never diminish. Be sure to end every meal with a glass of water or organic juice to bring your fluid levels back up.

Smelly breath
No matter how disgusting you think it is, spit is actually beneficial for keeping our mouths clean. We stop producing spit in our sleep, and this is what causes nasty, funky morning breath. The principle is the same in cases of dehydration; if you don’t have enough water, you can’t produce spit, forcing people to hold their breaths when talking to you.

Since our mental faculties become impaired when we don’t drink enough water, it’s not unsurprising that we can experience mood swings. Dehydration leads to the breaking down of several bodily functions, including rational thinking. When we don’t drink enough, a simple “hello” from a co-worker might send you off the rails.

Sugar craving
This is most common in people suffering from dehydration after a workout session. When cooling down, you might feel the need to put food in your mouth. This is due to decreased glycogen levels, and our bodies want to keep the sugar ratio balance in check. Chocolate cake might be enticing, but it’s better to start off with a couple glasses of water, just to see if dehydration really is indeed the culprit of a sudden need for sweets.

Trouble sleeping
Not having enough water in our bodies can disrupt our sleep. Dehydration can lead to snoring and muscle spasms in your sleep – two things that can jolt you awake in the middle of the night. However, drinking water right before bed can wake you up by forcing you to go to the bathroom, ruining your sleep cycle. Instead, drink your body weight’s recommended amount of water before 8 PM; you’ll be thoroughly hydrated but have expelled all the urine from your body before climbing into bed.

Loss of muscles
The muscles around our bodies are mostly made up of water. Not having enough water can cause muscle spasms and a loss of muscle mass. No matter how many weights you lift, you might notice that you’re not getting optimal gains and might even be losing muscle mass. Drinking a glass or two before and after a workout can help you build your muscles right back up.

Prolonged bouts of illness
Water helps our bodies flush out toxins through urination, sneezing, and coughing. Without sufficient water in our bodies, many of our organs will begin to deteriorate, including our kidneys. What happens when we don’t have enough fluids to expel these toxins is that our organs steal water from other areas of our bodies, including our blood, which can potentially lead to a whole new range of health problems.

Problems digesting
Our digestive tracts are lined with a naturally occurring mucus which helps move food down the system and protects our organs from gastric acids. Without enough water, the mucus lining will become thinner and less effective in moving food and shielding our organs from the acids. Heartburn and indigestion will usually occur after our stomach acids roam freely.

Accelerated aging
We mentioned earlier that dehydration can affect our skin due to the inability to produce the natural moisturizing oils. What this can do is actually cause us to look a lot older than we actually are. Looking young requires having enough fluid to keep your moisturized, and long bouts of minor dehydration can cause premature lines and wrinkles.

Weight gain
Dehydration can actually cause an increase in body weight. Without enough water in our systems, our bodies will latch onto anything they can get from anywhere, including the salty and sweet snacks you mistakenly ate to fight off thirst/hunger. You’ll also increase your carb load through sweet or salty treats in the attempt to reduce your thirst.

Aching joints
Our joints are in constant need of water to stay squishy and absorb shocks. The cushioning between joints will deteriorate in cases of dehydration since they don’t absorb water from other sources. Unexpected cracked knuckles might be a way that your body is in dire need of hydration.

Cholesterol imbalance
When we become dehydrated, our bodies respond by commanding it to increase its production of cholesterol. This thickens our cellular walls in order to retain as much moisture as possible. As a result of this defensive mechanism, our blood cholesterol levels will spike and become harder to maintain.

Respiratory problems
From our noses to our bronchi, the entire respiratory tract needs an ample lining of mucus to prevent foreign bodies from passing into our lungs. Without proper hydration, the mucus lining will become thin, allowing more and more airborne pollutants to enter and reside in our lungs. This opens our lungs to a host of different problems, including allergies and excessive, dry coughing.



Posted Coillected by 

Monday, 24 December 2018


The habit of washing hands with soap before handling food, whether it is to eat or to cook, can eliminate many illnesses. Washing hands also prevents transfer of bacteria from hands to food. Hand washing with soap is also one of the most effective and inexpensive way to prevent diarrheal and acute respiratory infections, which take the lives of millions of children in developing countries every year. Yet, despite its lifesaving potential, hand washing with soap is seldom practiced and difficult to promote.

Turning hand washing with soap before eating and after using the toilet into an ingrained habit could save more lives than any single vaccine or medical intervention, cutting deaths from diarrhea by almost half and deaths from acute respiratory infections by one-quarter.


·        Wash your hands with water and soap for at least 20 seconds

·        Make sure to wash between the fingers, under the finger  nails and the wrists

·        Rinse well and then dry your hands


·        Wash your hands before, during and after preparing a meal

·        Wash hands before eating

·        Wash after using the restroom

·        Wash after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing

·        Wash after handling raw meat, poultry and seafood

·        Wash after touching garbage, after touching pets or other animals

How to wash your hands:
1.Wet hands with water
2.     Apply enough soap and handwash to cover all hand surfaces
3.     Rub hands palm to palm
4.     Right palm over the other hand with interlaced fingers and vice versa
5.     Palm to palm with fingers interlaced
6.     Backs of fingers to opposing palms with fingers interlocked
7.     Rotational rubbing of left thumb clasped in right palm and vice versa
8.     Rotational rubbing, backwards and forwards with clasped fingers of right hand in left palm and vice versa
9.     Rince hands with water
10. Dry thoroughly with towel. Duration of procedure: At least 15 seconds

Posting by:  DOSHTI

Source from : Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) 
The website of the Occupational Dermatology Education and Research Centre