Wednesday, 21 October 2015

Prevention of Fire Accident During Hot Work

Hot Work/Welding General Safety and Health 

Hot work is any work that involves burning, welding, using fire- or spark-producing tools, or that produces a source of ignition. Welding and cutting operations are common to drilling and servicing operations.
Test for flammable gases in the work area before starting any hot work. Potentially hazardous areas include, but are not limited to, well heads, fuel tanks, mud tanks, tank batteries, gas separators, oil treaters, or confined spaces where gases can accumulate.

Hazards may include and/or be related to the following:
Hot Work, Fire, and Explosive Hazards
Workers performing hot work such as welding, cutting, brazing, soldering, and grinding are exposed to the risk of fires from ignition of flammable or combustible materials in the space, and from leaks of flammable gas into the space, from hot work equipment.
Potential Hazard:
§  Getting burned by fires or explosions during hot work.
Possible Solutions:
The basic precautions for fire prevention are:
§  Perform hot work in a safe location, or with fire hazards removed or covered.
§  Use guards to confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards.
Special Precautions:
§  Do not perform hot work where flammable vapors or combustible materials exist. Work and equipment should be relocated outside of the hazardous areas, when possible.
§  Make suitable fire-extinguishing equipment immediately available in a state or readiness. Such equipment may consist of pails of water, buckets of sand, hose, or portable extinguishers dependent upon the nature and quantity of the combustible material exposed.
§  Assign additional personnel (fire watch) to guard against fire while hot work is being performed. Fire watchers are required whenever welding or cutting is performed in locations where anything greater than a minor fire might develop.
o    Fire watchers shall:
o    Have fire-extinguishing equipment readily available and be trained in its use.
o    Be familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm in the event of a fire.
o    Watch for fires in all exposed areas, try to extinguish them only when obviously within the capacity of the equipment available, or otherwise sound the alarm.
o    Maintain the fire watch at least a half hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smouldering fires.
Potential Hazard:
§  Getting burned by a flash fire or explosion that results from an accumulation of flammable gases, such as Methane or Hydrogen Sulfide, around the wellhead area.
Possible Solutions:
§  Monitor the atmosphere with a gas detector. If a flammable or combustible gas exceeds 10 percent of the lower explosive level (LEL), the work must be stopped.
§  Identify the source of the gas and repair the leakage.
Welding, Cutting and Brazing
All hot work is potentially hazardous and a hazard assessment should be performed to determine where the hazards exist.
Potential Hazard:
§  Injury and illness caused by hot work (such as, welding fumes, UV light, sparks, noise, or skin injury).
Possible Solutions:
§  Inspect the work area to ensure that all fuel and ignition sources are isolated by shielding, clearing the area, lockout/tagout, soaking flammable material with water.
§  Wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as face shield, leather welder's vest, and gauntlet gloves. Use cotton or denim clothing.
§  Provide UV shielding for arc welding where practical.
§  Inspect welding and cutting equipment before use (arc or gas welding/burning).
§  Leak test gas torches, gauges, and hoses.
§  Review the hot work permit if available.
§  Ensure the availability of adequate fire watch/fire protection equipment.
§  Ensure adequate ventilation from toxic welding and cutting fumes.
Special Hazard:
§  Accumulation of toxic gases within a confined space.
§  A hazardous atmosphere exists in oxygen-deficient (atmospheric concentration of less than 19.5 percent) or oxygen-enriched (atmospheric concentration of more than 23.5 percent).
Possible Solutions:
§  Ventilate toxic metal fumes mechanically, if entering a confined space, such as inside of a mud tank, water tank, oil tanks, hoppers, sump, pit or cellar.
§  Use a written permit system to document authorization to enter, the work to be performed, and the results of the gas monitoring where there is a potential for toxic, flammable, or oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Both a hot work and confined entry permit may be required for welding, cutting or brazing within a confined space.
Cylinder Storage
Potential Hazard:
§  Falling or rolling injuries from improper gas cylinder storage
Possible Solutions:
§  Ensure cylinders are properly stored in an upright position and chained in separate racks.
§  Store full and empty cylinders separately.
Potential Hazard:
§  Valve opening or break off, exposing workers to toxic fumes and flammable gas, caused by improper gas cylinder storage
Possible Solutions:
§  Store cylinder properly.
§  Always remove gauges and regulators, and install protective valve caps before transporting.
Potential Hazard:
§  Gas cylinders causing fires or explosions
Possible Solutions:
§  Store cylinders in a dry, well-ventilated location.
§  Avoid storing flammable substances in the same area as gas cylinders.
§  Avoid storing cylinders of oxygen within 20 feet of cylinders containing flammable gases.
§  Store all cylinders upright and chained in separate racks.
§  Store full and empty cylinders separately.
Potential Hazard:
§  Grinding (that results in sparks, noise, eye and skin injury from flying metal filings, grinding wheel pieces, etc.).
§  Having fingers or hands caught in the grinding wheel, resulting in amputation.
§  Being struck by portable grinder.
Possible Solutions:
§  Wear appropriate personal protective equipment, such as face shield. Use cotton or denim clothing.
§  Inspect grinding equipment before use.
§  Review the hot work permit if available.
§  Ensure the availability of adequate fire watch/fire protection equipment.

Well Site Ignition Sources
There are a number of potential sources of ignition for flammable gases and liquids on the drill site. It is necessary to provide for a general ignition safety program which could pre-empt potential hazards of fire and explosion.
Potential Hazard:
§  Ignition and explosions of flammable gases or vapors from:
o    Internal-combustion engine sparks
o    Open flames from any source
o    Smoking
o    Welding operations
o    Electric power tools
o    Two-way radios
o    Vehicles with catalytic converters
o    Portable generators
Possible Solutions:
§  Provide spark arrestors for internal-combustion engines.
§  Post "NO SMOKING" signs wherever a flammable gas or vapor hazard exists.
§  Locate "spark producing" equipment or facilities well away from potential hazard areas.
§  Prohibit vehicles with catalytic converters from the immediate vicinity of the rig.
§  Prohibit open flames from the vicinity of the rig.
Additional References:
§  OSHA Standards
o    29 CFR 1910.106, Flammable and combustible liquids
o    29 CFR 1910.252, Welding, cutting, and brazing - general requirements
o    29 CFR 1910.253, Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting
o    29 CFR 1910.254, Arc welding and cutting
o    29 CFR 1910.255, Resistance welding
§  American Petroleum Institute (API)
o    Standards. American Petroleum Institute (API).
o    RP 54, Occupational Safety for Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Operations, (2007, March).
o    Publication 2201, Procedures for Welding Or Hot Tapping On Equipment Containing Flammables, (2003).
§  National Fire Protection Association
o    30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, (2012).
o    51-B, Standard for Fire Prevention During Welding, Cutting, and Other Hot Work.
§  International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC)
o    Hot Work Hazard Recognition
§  ANSI Z49.1-67 Safety in Welding and Cutting, American National Standards Institute.
§  AWS Z49.1-88, Safety in Welding and Cutting and Applied Processes, American Welding Society.
§  American Petroleum Institute (API).
o    RP 54, Recommended Practice for Occupational Safety for Oil and Gas Well Drilling and Servicing Operations, Wireline Service.
o    RP 500, 3rd Edition, Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class 1, Division 1 and Division 2.
o    RP 505, 2nd Edition, Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class 1, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2.
§  Accident Prevention Reference Guide. International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC).
§  29 CFR 1910.106, Flammable and Combustible Liquids. OSHA Standard.
§  29 CFR 1910 Subpart S, Electrical. OSHA Standard.

Post by Indian Safety Association

Friday, 16 October 2015

Supervisor Toolbox

Supervisor Toolbox 

The Right Tools for the Right Time!

• First, treat others as you wish to be treated (or as you wish your loved ones to be treated) – namely with respect.
• Second, remember that staffs are multi-faceted human beings, with needs, interests and lives that are important to them.
• Third, be honest and ethical.
• Fourth, recognize that problems are a normal part of life and approach them in an effort to find solutions rather than place blame.
• Fifth, give praise and recognition when it is due.
• Finally, show those who work for you that you too are human – laugh, share, apologize when it is called for and let them get to know you. No one expects a supervisor to be perfect.

Post by Doshti

Thursday, 15 October 2015

Electrical Safety

 Electrical Safety 

Why is it so important to work safely with or near electricity?

The voltage of the electricity and the available electrical current in regular businesses and homes has enough power to cause death by electrocution. Even changing a light bulb without unplugging the lamp can be hazardous because coming in contact with the "hot", "energized" or "live" part of the socket could killa person.

What do I need to know about electricity?

All electrical systems have the potential to cause harm. Electricity can be either "static" or "dynamic." Dynamic electricity is the uniform motion of electrons through a conductor (this is known as electric current). Conductors are materials that allow the movement of electricity through it. Most metals are conductors. The human body is also a conductor. This document is about dynamic electricity.
Note: Static electricity is accumulation of charge on surfaces as a result of contact and friction with another surface. This contact/friction causes an accumulation of electrons on one surface, and a deficiency of electrons on the other surface. The OSH Answers document on How Do I Work Safely with Flammable and Combustible Liquids? (Static Electricity) has more information.
Electric current cannot exist without an unbroken path to and from the conductor. Electricity will form a "path" or "loop". When you plug in a device (e.g., a power tool), the electricity takes the easiest path from the plug-in, to the tool, and back to the power source. This is also known as creating or completing an electrical circuit.

What kinds of injuries result from electrical currents?

People are injured when they become part of the electrical circuit. Humans are more conductive than the earth (the ground we stand on) which means if there is no other easy path, electricity will try to flow through our bodies.
There are four main types of injuries: electrocution (fatal), electric shock, burns, and falls. These injuries can happen in various ways:
•Direct contact with exposed energized conductors or circuit parts. When electrical current travels through our bodies, it can interfere with the normal electrical signals between the brain and our muscles (e.g., heart may stop beating properly, breathing may stop, or muscles may spasm).
•When the electricity arcs (jumps, or "arcs") from an exposed energized conductor or circuit part (e.g., overhead power lines) through a gas (such as air) to a person who is grounded (that would provide an alternative route to the ground for the electrical current).
•Thermal burns including burns from heat generated by an electric arc, and flame burns from materials that catch on fire from heating or ignition by electrical currents or an electric arc flash. Contact burns from being shocked can burn internal tissues while leaving only very small injuries on the outside of the skin.
•Thermal burns from the heat radiated from an electric arc flash. Ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light emitted from the arc flash can also cause damage to the eyes.
•An arc blast can include a potential pressure wave released from an arc flash. This wave can cause physical injuries, collapse your lungs, or create noise that can damage hearing.
•Muscle contractions, or a startle reaction, can cause a person to fall from a ladder, scaffold or aerial bucket. The fall can cause serious injuries.

What should I do if I think I am too close to overhead power lines?

Do not work close to power lines. Recommended distances vary by jurisdiction and/or utility companies. Check with both your jurisdiction and electrical utility company when working, driving, parking, or storing materials closer than 15 m (49 feet) to overhead power lines.
•If you must be close to power lines, you must first call your electrical utility company and they will assist you.
•If your vehicle comes into contact with a power line:
o DO NOT get out of your vehicle.
o Call your local utility service for help.
o Wait for the electrical utility to come and they will tell you when it is safe to get out of your vehicle.
o Never try to rescue another person if you are not trained to do so.
o If you must leave the vehicle (e.g., your vehicle catches on fire), exit by jumping as far as possible - at least 45 to 60 cm (1.5 to 2 feet). Never touch the vehicle or equipment and the ground at the same time. Keep your feet, legs, and arms close to your body.
o Keep your feet together (touching), and move away by shuffling your feet. Never let your feet separate or you may be shocked or electrocuted.
o Shuffle at least 10 metres away from your vehicle before you take a normal step. Do not enter an electrical power substation, or other marked areas.

Do not enter an electrical power substation, or other marked areas.

What are some general safety tips for working with or near electricity?

•Inspect portable cord-and-plug connected equipment, extension cords, power bars, and electrical fittings for damage or wear before each use. Repair or replace damaged equipment immediately.
• Always tape extension cords to walls or floors when necessary. Nails and staples can damage extension cords causing fire and shock hazards.
• Use extension cords or equipment that is rated for the level of amperage or wattage that you are using.
• Always use the correct size fuse. Replacing a fuse with one of a larger size can cause excessive currents in the wiring and possibly start a fire.
•Be aware that unusually warm or hot outlets may be a sign that unsafe wiring conditions exists. Unplug any cords or extension cords to these outlets and do not use until a qualified electrician has checked the wiring.
•Always use ladders made with non-conductive side rails (e.g., fiberglass) when working with or near electricity or power lines.
•Place halogen lights away from combustible materials such as cloths or curtains. Halogen lamps can become very hot and may be a fire hazard.
•Risk of electric shock is greater in areas that are wet or damp. Install Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters (GFCIs) as they will interrupt the electrical circuit before a current sufficient to cause death or serious injury occurs.
•Use a portable in-line Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) if you are not certain that the receptacle you are plugging your extension cord into is GFCI protected.
•Make sure that exposed receptacle boxes are made of non-conductive materials.
•Know where the panel and circuit breakers are located in case of an emergency.
•Label all circuit breakers and fuse boxes clearly. Each switch should be positively identified as to which outlet or appliance it is for.
•Do not use outlets or cords that have exposed wiring.
•Do not use portable cord-and-plug connected power tools with the guards removed.
•Do not block access to panels and circuit breakers or fuse boxes.
• Do not touch a person or electrical apparatus in the event of an electrical accident. Always disconnect the power source first.
What are some tips for working with power tools?
• Switch all tools OFF before connecting them to a power supply.
• Disconnect and lockout the power supply before completing any maintenance work tasks or making adjustments.
•Ensure tools are properly grounded or double-insulated. The grounded equipment must have an approved 3-wire cord with a 3-prong plug. This plug should be plugged in a properly grounded 3-pole outlet.
•Test all tools for effective grounding with a continuity tester or a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) before use.
•Do not bypass the on/off switch and operate the tools by connecting and disconnecting the power cord.
•Do not use electrical equipment in wet conditions or damp locations unless the equipment is connected to a GFCI.
•Do not clean tools with flammable or toxic solvents.
•Do not operate tools in an area containing explosive vapours or gases, unless they are intrinsically safe and only if you follow the manufacturer's guidelines.
What are some tips for working with power cords?
•Keep power cords clear of tools during use.
•Suspend extension cords temporarily during use over aisles or work areas to eliminate stumbling or tripping hazards.
•Replace open front plugs with dead front plugs. Dead front plugs are sealed and present less danger of shock or short circuit.
•Do not use light duty extension cords in a non-residential situation.
•Do not carry or lift up electrical equipment by the power cord.
•Do not tie cords in tight knots. Knots can cause short circuits and shocks. Loop the cords or use a twist lock plug.

What is a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

A Class A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) works by detecting any loss of electrical current in a circuit (e.g., it will trip at a maximum of 6mA). When a loss is detected, the GFCI turns the electricity off before severe injuries or electrocution can occur. A painful non-fatal shock may occur during the time that it takes for the GFCI to cut off the electricity so it is important to use the GFCI as an extra protective measure rather than a replacement for safe work practices.

When and how do I test the Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI)?

It is important that you follow the manufacturer's instructions with respect to the use of a GFCI. Test permanently wired GFCIs monthly, and portable devices before each use. Press the "test" and "reset" buttons. Plug a "night light" or lamp into the GFCI-protected wall outlet (the light should turn on), then press the "TEST" button on the GFCI. If the GFCI is working properly, the light should go out. If not, have the GFCI repaired or replaced. Press the "RESET" button on the GFCI to restore power.
If the "RESET" button pops out but the "night light" or lamp does not go out, the GFCI has been improperly wired and does not offer shock protection at that wall outlet. Contact a qualified electrician to correct any wiring errors.

What is a sample checklist for basic electrical safety?

Inspect Cords and Plugs

•Check extension cords and plugs daily. Do not use, and discard if worn or damaged. Have any extension cord that feels more than comfortably warm checked by an electrician.

Eliminate Octopus Connections

•Do not plug several items into one outlet.
•Pull the plug, not the cord.
•Do not disconnect power supply by pulling or jerking the cord from the outlet. Pulling the cord causes wear and may cause a shock.

Never Break OFF the Third Prong on a Plug

•Replace broken 3-prong plugs and make sure the third prong is properly grounded.

Never Use Extension Cords as Permanent Wiring

•Use extension cords only to temporarily supply power to an area that does not have a power outlet.
•Keep extension cords away from heat, water and oil. They can damage the insulation and cause a shock.
•Do not allow vehicles to pass over unprotected extension cords. Extension cords should be put in protective wire-way, conduit, pipe or protected by placing planks alongside them.

Posted by Indian Safety Association

Confined Space Entry Safety

What is a Confined Space?

A confined space is any space that:
• Is enclosed or partially enclosed
• It is not designed or intended for continuous human occupancy, except for the purpose of performing work
• Has restricted entry and exit
• Due to its design, construction or atmosphere it may become hazardous
• Has poor natural ventilation

Never assume a confined space is safe. Some of the risks are:
• Lifetime respiratory damage
• Brain damage
• Your death and/or loss of co-workers and friends

Not Always Easy to Recognize
The first step is to identify confined spaces at your work site. Obviously, such things as tanks and vessels are confined spaces, but so is any area that has limited entry or exit. Some of these areas include open-topped water and degreaser tanks, open pits, and deep trenches.

Know the Limits
An Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) tells you how long you can work in a specific atmosphere for a certain amount of time. Know the limits. Check the MSDS or the OH&S Legislation.

Atmospheres can only be detected by careful initial and on-going testing with proper equipment. Remember - an atmosphere can become potentially fatal at a moment's notice.

Plan Your Entry
Before entering a confined space:
• Ensure there is adequate atmospheric testing and monitoring
• Know the procedures - the code of practice governs the practices and procedures to be followed when workers enter and work in a confined space
• Prepare - use the entry permit system, isolate and lockout, clean and ventilate, obtain special equipment
• Choose your safety equipment and clothing - head, hearing, and body protection. Include respiratory protection and rescue equipment such as tripods, lines, and harnesses, and ensure there is a competent worker who undertakes rescue operations
There are many extra safe work practices and procedures for confined space entry. As well, there are often entry permit systems and Codes of Practice for Respiratory Protective Equipment needed. You need to know all the information BEFORE you enter a confined space.

Invisible Killers
Do you know what an area low in oxygen looks like? Of course not - it doesn't look like anything. It looks just as safe as any other area. That's why you have tools (detection and protection). Even the hazards that you do see are often made worse by a confined space. Rescue is made much more difficult - and rescuers are exposed to the danger too.

Creation of Deadly Atmospheres
Deadly atmospheres in confined spaces can be created by:
• Seeping gases and liquids
• Decaying organic matter
• Nitrogen purging and blanketing
• Improper blanking off of oxygen lines (can produce oxygen enrichment)
• Hot work or oxidation
• Some cold work such as cleaning

What's in There?
Confined spaces can hold many deadly atmospheres:
• Oxygen deficiency - the minimum oxygen content is 19.5%. Atmospheres under this level are not safe.
• Oxygen enrichment - too much oxygen can also be a danger. The maximum oxygen concentration is 23%. In addition, errors in combustible gas detection readings can be caused by oxygen enrichment
• Airborne combustible dust levels - a highly explosive atmosphere can be created with finely ground combustible materials such as grain, carbon, cellulose, fibers, and plastics
• Combustible gases - explosive concentrations can be produced
• Toxic gases - Hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, smoke, ammonia, chlorine, sulfur dioxide - all are potentially deadly

What do you have?
Often people don't think about confined spaces at home. Remember that a confined space is an area that is somehow restricted in entry and exit. Some examples of confined spaces in the home are:
• Crawl Spaces
• Cellars
Home improvement jobs such as painting, wallpapering, and sanding all produce airborne particles or vapours. These particles and vapours can build up if there is no proper ventilation. You need to ventilate and use personal protective equipment that is specific to the job you're doing.
Confined spaces in your home can be just as hazardous as many found in the workplace. And the workplace has procedures, permits, Codes of Practice, communication systems, and rescue equipment and procedures. What do you have?
Sometimes it may be best to use professionals to do the job. They have all the necessary equipment and training to do a high-quality, safe job.
For more information, refer to current applicable Occupational Health and Safety Legislation.

Questions your Self......
Before entering a confined space, ask yourself:
• Do I have the proper training to do the job?
• Do I know what to do if someone sounds the alarm?
• What are the communication and rescue procedures?
• Is all the necessary rescue equipment available?
• Is the confined space isolated?
• Is the confined space ventilated?
• Has it been tested for contaminants and for low or high oxygen levels? When was the last time it was tested?
• What personal protective equipment do I need?
• Has your employer appointed a competent person to assess the hazards?

Posted By Department of Occupational Safety & Health Training Institute.

Toolbox talks/Meetings

What does Toolbox Talk mean?

A toolbox talk is an informal safety meeting that is part of an organization's overall safety program. Toolbox meetings are generally conducted at the job site prior to the commencement of a job or work shift. A toolbox talk covers special topics on safety aspects related to the specific job. Meetings are normally short in duration and cover topics such as work related workplace hazards, and safe work practices. It is one of the very effective methods to refresh workers' knowledge, cover last minute safety checks, and exchange information with the experienced workers.

Toolbox talks/meetings are sometimes referred to as tailgate meetings or safety briefings.

Toolbox Talk

Toolbox talks promote the awareness of safety issues in the forefront. A toolbox talk may have the following impacts:
• Promotes safety awareness. Workers get actively involved in safety matters and reduce safety risks
• Introduces workers to new safety rules, equipment, preventive practices and motivates workers to follow standard operating procedures
• Provides vital information to the workers on accident causes types and preventive actions
• Emphasizes planning, preparation, supervision, and documentation
• Helps when reviewing new laws or industry standards, company policies and procedures
• Encourages workers to discuss their experiences that help to review safety procedures in future

Following are the salient features of a toolbox talks:

• Should be scheduled at the beginning of the work shift
• Meeting should be done at the job site
• Duration should be approximately 10-15 minutes
• Discussion and review of the previous meetings to be done as reminder
• Discussion on the current task to be done
• Discussion on the safety issues including environment, hazards, use of personnel protective equipment, first aid and medical support and emergency procedures
• Worker participation is to be encouraged
• There may be review and recapitulation with quiz or test

Post By Department of Occupational Safety & Health Training Institute