Tuesday, 29 December 2015

Triangle of Combustion

Triangle of Combustion 
What is the Fire Triangle?

The fire triangle is used to show the three elements that when present together can cause a fire to start. These three ingredients are fuel, heat and oxygen, under all circumstances they should be kept apart to avoid a fire starting. Understanding the basic principles of the fire triangle is essential in helping to protect your business and prevent fires from breaking out.

How does the fire triangle work?

When fuel or flammable materials are heated, the energy stored inside starts to react with oxygen in the air, giving off heat. This creates a vicious cycle, which causes the fire to spread. To stop the spread of a fire you have to remove one of these elements to break the triangle.

Lighting and preventing fires based on the fire triangle:


This makes up about 20% of the air we breathe, so there is a ready supply to fuel a potential fire if flammable materials come into contact with enough heat to start a fire. Once a fire has started, depriving it of oxygen will weaken extinguish it. This is a principle used by some fire extinguishers. Foam and dry powder extinguishers can be used to smother flames and deprive the fire of oxygen, whereas the CO2 in carbon dioxide fire extinguishers will replace the oxygen to deprive the fuel source of it.
Without a sufficient supply of Oxygen a fire will stop burning, so it’s always handy to keep appropriate fire extinguishers near areas with a high risk of fire. Always use fire extinguishers with care and check that you are using the correct type of fire extinguisher for the type of fire you are dealing with.


All flammable materials have a flash point, this is the lowest temperature at which they will ignite. If you are storing flammables on site then you will need to be aware of their flashpoints and make sure that all materials stored away from sources of heat and under their flash point temperature.
If a fire does break out then having a water fire extinguisher on standby is a good idea. Water has the effect of cooling the fire, thus removing heat from the equation. However remember not to use water on electrical appliances or cooking oil fires.


A fire will continue as long as there is fuel to burn. Fuel comes under three categories, solid, liquid and gas. Each type should be treated specially to ensure that their presence does not result in a fire.
The most common types of fuel are solid materials. Just look around you, everyday materials that surround you such as paper, card, clothing, fabrics and furniture could all be potential fuel for a fire. To reduce the chance of a fire starting, keep these materials away from electric heaters, radiators and direct sunlight.
Liquid fuel and flammable gases require more special attention. Ideally you should keep liquids and gases in a sealed container away from other flammables and possible sources of ignition or heat. You should regularly check for signs of damage to the containers and keep as small an amount as necessary on site. 
Of course following these tips can only help reduce the chance of a fire breaking out, so it is strongly advised to only keep flammable liquids and gases are absolutely needed and if no non-flammable alternative is available.
Once a fire has started it is very difficult to remove the fuel, but wet chemical fire extinguishers which are specially designed for cooking oil and grease fires can achieve this. The chemicals released react with oil to form non-combustible soapy layer, which stops the spread of fire in its tracks.
Each year there are many non-domestic fires that could have easily been prevented. By understanding the basic principles of the fire triangle you can ensure that your business is best prepared to avoid potential disaster caused by fire.

Types of Fires

Not all fires are the same. Different fuels create different fires and require different types of fire extinguishing agents.

Class A fires are fires in ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, cloth, trash, and plastics.
Class B fires are fires in flammable liquids such as gasoline, petroleum oil and paint. Class B fires also includeflammable gases such as propane and butane. Class B fires do not include fires involving cooking oils and grease.
Class C fires are fires involving energized electical equipment such as motors, transformers, and appliances. Remove the power and the Class C fire becomes one of the other classes of fire.
Class D fires are fires in combustible metals such as potassium, sodium, aluminum, and magnesium.
Class K fires are fires in cooking oils and greases such as animals fats and vegetable fats.

Some types of fire extinguishing agents can be used on more than one class of fire. Others have warnings where it would be dangerous for the operator to use a particular fire extinguishing agent.
Posted by Indian Safety Association 

Thursday, 24 December 2015

Emergency Procedures - Chemical Spills

Emergency Procedures - Chemical Spills

1.   Purpose
This procedure outlines the steps to manage a chemical spill in order to minimise the potential for injury and damage to the environment.

2.   Scope
The procedure applies to any events that result in the uncontained spill of a hazardous substance within the Workplaces.

3.   Definitions Major Spill, Minor Spill:
The nature of the spill is determined by the risk from the hazardous substance and the level of containment of the spill. An example of a minor spill is 5ml of concentrated Sulphuric Acid in a fume cupboard. Although the risk of concentrated acid is high it is only a small volume that can easily be neutralised and removed. An example of a major spill is the uncontrolled release of ammonia from a gas cylinder in an unventilated enclosed area. The volume is large and may represent a high risk to persons in the area.

4.   Standard/Universal Kit: Should contain the following items
·         Goggles
·         Chemically resistant gloves
·         Absorbent materials (booms, pads, pillows)
·         Acid neutralizer
·         Base neutralizer
·         pH test strips/paper
·         Solvent suppressant
·         Plastic bags for waste materials
·         Plastic scoop and scraper

5.   Safety Precautions:
 If you are ever in doubt of your ability to clean a chemical spill safely, evacuate and call for help.

If there is risk to the rest of the building, pull the fire alarm and evacuate the building.

Certain materials found in the clean room can be particularly hazardous when spilled. Review the MSDS and make sure you understand the hazardous properties of the spilled material before you attempt to clean it up. It is always better to err on the side of caution. If you spill something, and you aren’t sure if you can clean it up safely, evacuate the Workplace.

First aid is always the top priority. If you spill a hazardous material on yourself, remove any potentially contaminated clothing immediately and utilize the emergency shower. Seek appropriate medical treatment.

 If material spills in your eye, flush for at least 15 minutes at the eyewash (for corrosive materials, you may need to flush for up to 60 minutes – review the MSDS). Seek appropriate medical treatment

6.   Spill Procedures:


· Consider a spill to be a ‘major spill’ if:
· you are not comfortable proceeding with clean up
· it involves more than 5L of a hazardous material
· there is a risk of fire or explosion
· the material creates a respiratory hazard (toxic/noxious odours e.g., ammonia, concentrated hydrochloric acid, mercaptoethanol)
· the spill involves unknown or incompatible chemicals
· Spills of oxidizing acids (conc nitric acid, perchloric acid, chromic acid etc..)
· spills of unstable, air or water reactive materials

In the event of a major spill:
· If you have an opportunity to extinguish nearby ignition sources or contain the spill at the source without risk of injury, please do so.
· Notify everyone in the lab and evacuate to the hall. Administer first aid if necessary.
· Dial XXX  on a Work Place  phone or use a nearby emergency call box to notify emergency authorities.
· If there is a risk to the remainder of the building, activate the nearest alarm pull station to trigger a building evacuation.
· When emergency responders arrive, provide them with all relevant information on the type and quantity of material spilled


In the event of a minor spill:
· If you have an opportunity to extinguish nearby ignition sources or contain the spill at the source without risk of injury, please do so.
· If any hazardous material has spilled on you, remove affected clothing immediately and flush the area with water. - Alert others in the lab and cordon off the affected area.
· Retrieve the spill kit. Stop and think about your plan to clean the spill. Do you have the right materials to clean the material up safely? If not, retrieve the appropriate items from an alternate source or call XXX on a Work Place phone or use a nearby emergency call box.
· Remove the gloves and goggles and from the kit, put them and all appropriate PPE on before approaching the spill.

For organic solvents
· Ensure there are no ignition sources in the area. If you feel there is risk of fire or explosion, evacuate the lab and treat as a major spill. If the spill can be cleaned up safely, proceed with the following.
· If there are drains in the area, use a boom, sock, or other material to prevent the hazardous material from reaching the drain.
· Gently pour solvent vapour suppressant (activated carbon) over the spill, working from the outer edge to the middle.
· Using the absorbent pads from the spill kit, carefully wipe up the spilled liquid, again working from the outside in.
· Place all waste materials in a plastic bag. Once the spill has been fully cleaned, place the waste bag with in the fume hood temporarily. Label the bag as hazardous waste, and submit a Chemical Waste Disposal Request form to your Chemical Waste Disposal collector.
· Remove PPE and thoroughly wash hands.
· Use soap and water to wash the affected area and remove any minor residues that may be left.
· Report the spill using the Incident Report form.

For acids
· If there are drains in the area, use a boom, sock, or other material to prevent the hazardous material from reaching the drain.
· Gently pour acid neutralizing agent (e.g, sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, etc.) over the spill, working from the outside in.
· Allow several minutes for acid to mix with neutralizer, and then test a representative area with pH paper.
· When the spill has been neutralized, use the available absorbent pads or paper towel to wipe up the spilled material.
· Place all waste into a plastic bag and label as hazardous. Place in a suitable location and submit a Chemical Waste Disposal Request form to your Chemical Waste Disposal collector.
· Remove PPE and thoroughly wash hands.
· Use soap and water to wash the affected area and remove any minor residues that may be left.
· Report the spill using the Incident Report form.

For bases
· If there are drains in the area, use a boom, sock, or other material to prevent the hazardous material from reaching the drain.
· Gently pour base neutralizing agent (e.g, citric acid, sodium bisulfate), etc.) over the spill, working from the outside in.
· Allow several minutes for the base to mix with neutralizer, and then test a representative area with pH paper.
· When the spill has been neutralized, use the available absorbent pads or paper towel to wipe up the spilled material.
· Place used materials into plastic bag and label as hazardous waste. Label the bag as hazardous waste and place in a suitable location and submit a Chemical Waste Disposal Request form to your Chemical Waste Disposal collector.
· Remove PPE and thoroughly wash hands.
· Use soap and water to wash the affected area and remove any minor residues that may be left.
· Report the spill using the Incident Report form.

For dry chemicals
· For materials that are highly corrosive, toxic, or reactive, treat as a major spill. A hazardous materials team, with specialized HEPA vacuums may be needed in these circumstances.
· For materials of limited hazard, the powder or crystals can be cleaned up using the scoop and dustpan. Place waste material in a suitable container or bag, and submit a Chemical Waste Disposal Request form to your Chemical Waste Disposal collector.
· Remove PPE and thoroughly wash hands.
· Use soap and water to wash the affected area and remove any minor residues that may be left. Report the spill using the Incident Report form.

Availability of neutralising substances / foam
Process specific emergency spill kits (acid, alkali, solvent, toxic etc) and appropriate personal protective equipment should be readily available with supporting procedures. These spill kits should be maintained on a regular basis to ensure that they are always available and fit for purpose. This ensures that the most appropriate measure is at hand to deal with a spill or fire in the most effective way.
Issues that should also be addressed include:
· Containment;
· Maintenance and condition of fire hoses, extinguishers.

Status of guidance
Existing guidance provides comprehensive information with respect to best practice for emergency response and spill control procedures.
STOP - THINK! Do not rush. Carefully plan clean up.

Get Material Safety Data Sheet and Determine Appropriate Clean-up Procedures for the Material

Post by Indian Safety Association 

Wednesday, 9 December 2015

Role of Youngster - Managing Disasters

Role of Youngster - Managing Disasters

Disaster is a sudden, calamitous and unfortunate event that brings with it great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to human life as well as property and also hampers the ongoing developmental projects in a particular area being affected by the disaster. Disaster has been defined in many ways; World Health Organization has defined disaster as any sudden occurrence of the events that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services, on a scale sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area. Disaster management is very important to survive in the case of a natural or a major man-made disaster and can be defined as the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of a sudden disaster.

The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of the earth surface/degree of vulnerability. At times there can be disasters where there is no loss of human life and at times these can also cause a huge loss of life and property. This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area. A disaster can be caused by human activities or due to some natural changes. Disasters are events that are unpredictable most of the times. It is important for any government, state or community to manage disasters by being prepared for it in advance. Government provides legislation, allocates resources and does rational planning and sustainable development. Disaster management and planning is a key part of government work and an issue to be taken up seriously by the concerned authorities.

Effects of Disaster
A disaster is an event of sudden calamity causing disruption in normal routing and causing a lot of destruction depending upon the intensity of the disaster. Generally, disaster has the following effects in the concerned areas:
       It completely disrupts the normal day to day life.
       Causes lot of loss in the terms of life and property.
       Leads to a loss of agriculture and animals life as well.
       Disasters hamper development projects in a adverse manner.
       Disaster causes destruction to the state of art and infrastructure.
       It negatively influence the emergency systems.
       Normal need s and processes like flood, Shelter, Health Etc., are affected and deteriorate depending on the intensity and severity of the disaster.

Types of Disasters
Disasters are inevitable; there is no country that is immune from disaster, though vulnerability to disaster varies. Generally, disasters are of two types; Natural and Manmade. Based on the devastation caused and intensity of the disaster, these are further classified into major/minor natural disaster and major/minor manmade disasters. Some of the disasters are listed below:

Natural disasters:
Natural disasters are generally unpredictable types of disasters and the destruction caused by these depends upon the intensity of the disasters. These disasters include floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and volcano eruptions that can have immediate impacts on human health, as well as secondary impacts causing further death and suffering from floods causing landslides, earthquakes resulting in fires, tsunamis causing widespread flooding and typhoons sinking ferries. Majorly the cause of these disasters is the change in climate as well as the movements inside the earth like moving of tectonic plates or lava. Depending upon the intensity as well as the destruction caused these can be classified as:

Major Natural Disaster:
Major natural disasters include the events of high intensity earthquake, floods, cyclone, flash floods, some major landslides and event of draught. These disasters generally cause a high loss of life and property and also lead to displacement of a lot of people from their shelters. Generally these disasters pose a major threat to the developmental projects as well as infrastructure of a particular area. Preparedness against these disasters should be on the top of the priority list.

Minor Natural Disasters:
Cold wave, heavy rains causing disruption in normal life, heat wave, thunderstorms, mud slides, some minor land-slides and low intensity earthquakes can be few cases of minor natural disasters. These disasters do not cause much loss in the terms of human life as well as property. Though, if care is not taken then these can prove to be fatal for human beings. There is generally not much need for disaster preparedness at community level but this kind of disaster requires personal preparedness and awareness against these disasters. For example, there can’t t be disaster preparedness for heat-wave or cold wave at community level; it is our own responsibility to take care of ourselves in the event of severe cold and heat.

Man-made Disasters:
These are the disaster generally taking place due to human activities and human negligence and can lead to a lot of destruction in the terms of life and property. At times these are really fatal and sometimes these could be minor event of emergency and can be handled at personal level. At most of the times these take place due to human negligence and hence are unpredictable most of the times, however the events of wars, attacks etc., are predictable disasters. The loss taking place due to these disasters depends upon the intensity of these disasters. These can be classified as:

Major Man-made Disaster:
Some major man-made disasters may include the events of forest-fires, event of wars, nuclear attack, major fires, industrial accidents as well as the event of building collapsing or accidents at construction sites causing a lot of loss and damage. Generally the events leading from human negligence such as industrial accidents, events of fires and construction accidents are unpredictable and cause a major loss in the terms of life and infrastructure. Some major events of industrial fires have been reported in past years that have led to death of a lot of workers and reported a huge loss of material and machinery. It is advised to have an emergency preparedness for evacuation in the events of an emergency and also industrial units should be vigilant and install all the safety gears as well equipment such as fire extinguishers and emergency alarms in the plant.

Minor Man-made Disasters:
Some events of train or road accidents, minor household fire, food poisoning, minor industrial accidents, events of looting, terrorist attacks or event of fire at shops etc., resulting mostly out of personal negligence is termed as minor man-made accidents. These do not lead to a high loss of life though loss of property may be evident in such cases. Personal awareness and caution can help you avert such incidents as well as to escape unhurt in case of such disasters. Hence it is advised to be cautious and vigilant to avoid such incidents.

Different kinds of Disaster
       Train Accidents
       Airplane Crash
       Wild Fires
       Rock and snow activates
       Nuclear Accidents

Disaster Preparedness 
Disaster preparedness or disaster management activities are aimed to minimize loss of life and damage in the event of a disaster. Disaster management forces can help by removing people and property from a threatened location and by facilitating timely and effective rescue, relief and rehabilitation at the place of disaster. Preparedness is the only way of reducing the impact of disasters as most of the disasters are unpredictable and even if predicted, there is not much time to act. Community-based preparedness and management should be a high priority in physical therapy practice management. Also it should be the main agenda of the government to appoint a proper department dealing with the disaster management and preparedness. Every municipality must have a disaster management plan as part of its Integrated Development Plans, according to the Municipal Systems Act. The local authorities should be empowered to act as soon as possible in the event of a disaster. It may take time to get relief and rescue operation to start, so in the meantime it is role of Municipal disaster management team to provide rescue work as soon as disaster strikes. Disaster Management has four phases namely:

Mitigation can be defined as the effort to reduce loss of life and property in the event of a disaster by lessening the impact of disasters. Mitigation is taking action now before the next disaster to reduce human and financial consequences later. Mitigation involves analyzing risk, reducing risk, insuring against risk. Personal mitigation is a key to national preparedness. Individuals and families train to avoid unnecessary risks. This includes an assessment of possible risks to personal/family health and to personal property. Effective mitigation at the time of disaster requires that we all understand local risks, address the hard choices, and invest in long-term community well-being. Without mitigation actions, we jeopardize our safety, financial security, and self-reliance. For effective mitigation, co-ordination, planning and mock activities are very important. Disasters can happen at anytime and anyplace; their human and financial consequences are hard to predict, preparedness is the only solution.

Disaster can strike any place at any time. The response phase of an emergency may commence with search and rescue but in all cases the focus will quickly turn to fulfilling the basic humanitarian needs of the affected population. The assistance may be provided by national or international agencies and organizations but it is the role of local bodies to act as soon as possible. Effective coordination of disaster assistance is often crucial, particularly when many organizations respond and local emergency management agency capacity has been exceeded by the demand or diminished by the disaster itself. Rescue operation involves providing medication to those hurt and taking people out of the affected area and debris in the events of earthquake and floods etc. There are various rescue teams at national and state level which come into action as soon as disaster strikes. But it is also better if local authorities are also trained as they have best knowledge about the geographical location and other local conditions.

This is a coordinated multi-agency response to reduce the impact of a disaster and its long-term results. Relief operation starts as soon as disaster strikes and main emphasis is laid on providing injured with medication and providing food as well as clean drinking water to the people. Relief activities include rescue, relocation, providing food and water, preventing disease and disability, repairing vital services such as telecommunications and transport, providing temporary shelter and emergency health care. It is very important to provide relief operation as soon as possible to minimize the number of causalities and to provide relief for injured. The relief workers are trained in basic first aid and medication and are also given training on maintaining co-ordination even in the event of crisis. The relief operation is best supported only when carried out as a team work and all the members of team should co-ordinate well with each other and also support one another without any discrepancy.

As soon as disaster strikes the first thing that comes to mind is relief and rescue operations. Once emergency needs have been met and the initial crisis is over, the people affected and the communities that support them are still vulnerable and it is time to start rehabilitation activities. Rehabilitation activities include rebuilding infrastructure, health care and other basic necessities. These should blend with development activities, such as building human resources for health and developing policies and practices to avoid similar situations in future. The immediate goal of the rehabilitation phase is to bring the affected area back to some degree of normalcy and to get back to normal situation as soon as possible. During reconstruction it is recommended to consider the location or construction material of the property and it should not be hurried rather reconstruction should be done properly and effectively.

Importance of Disaster Management
Disasters are events that have a huge impact on humans and the environment. Disasters are inevitable, we cannot do anything to prevent these but disaster preparedness is only in our hand. Disasters management requires government intervention and a proper planning as well as funding. It is not necessary that these disasters are always unpredictable. Floods take place in valleys and flood plains, droughts in areas with unstable and low rainfall, and oil spills happen in shipping lanes. This predictability provides opportunities to plan for, prevent and to lessen the impact of disasters. Disasters are inevitable although we do not always know when and where they will happen. But their worst effects can be partially or completely prevented by preparation, early warning, and swift, decisive responses.

Disaster management aims to reduce the occurrence of disasters and to reduce the impact of those that cannot be prevented. The government White paper and Act on Disaster Management define the roles of Local Authorities as well as Provincial and National government in disaster management. Disaster management forces come into action as soon as a disaster strikes and helps out in relief, rescue and rehabilitation process. These are trained individuals, and are given extensive training to perform in the event of a disaster or a natural calamity and they work as a team to reduce the loss of life and helping the locals getting back to normal life.

A big aspect of disaster management is preparedness.

Posted by Indian Safety Association

Tuesday, 1 December 2015

Nilavembu Kudineer for Dengue Treatment:

Nilavembu Kudineer

Common Name : Nilavembu
Botanical Name : Andrographis paniculata
Synonym: Kiriyath
Nilavembu Kudineer to Treat Fever

Nilavembu Kudineer is a Siddha medicine prepared from various parts of medicinal herbs. It is a decoction of nine herbs which have fever reducing, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties. Nilavembu or Andrographis panicultata is the principle ingredient of this decoction. It is also known as Kalmegh and Bhunimba. It is a bitter tonic and used traditionally for treating fever, liver problems, jaundice, respiratory illness etc.
The other ingredients of Nilavembu cure in diabetics are also used traditionally in the treatment of fever, inflammation, arthritis, gastric ulcer, jaundice and general debility conditions. So this whole combination can be used as preventive and curative measure for chikungunya, dengue and other viral fever.

Here is given more about Nilavembu kudineer health benefits such as indication/therapeutic uses, Key Ingredients and dosage.
Benefits of the Nilavembu Kudineer
  • Kalmegh | Nilavembu for Diabetes, Arthritis, Liver & Cancer: This plant is very useful for the patient who, having a problem of Diabetes, having a problem of the liver. This plant is very useful for the Cancer patient also as it kills the bacteria of the cancer. This plant is also beneficial for those patients who are suffering from arthritis.
  • Kalmegh | Nilavembu for Allergies: This plant is also useful for those patients who are having a problem of allergies. Many people say that this is the best medicine for the allergy patients.
  • Kalmegh | Nilavembu For All Kinds of Fever: The dose of this plant is also useful for those patients who are suffering from fever. At the time of fever if the patient takes the leaf of this plant then this will help the patient to recover very fast and also increase the power to fight the virus of fever.
  • Kalmegh | Nilavembu Kudineer for Dengue Treatment: There are 9 types of herbs on the market and in which Nilavembu is one of the best herb used in it. This helps to fight with the Dengue. This is the best treatment for the Dengue patient.
  • Kalmegh | Nilavembu for Cold: This type of herb is one of the best herb for those patients who is suffering from cold. This herb helps the patient to fight the bacteria of the cold.

These are some of the benefits of the Nilavembu from which it is very useful for the patient and help to increase the power of the patient to fight the bacteria. This herb is also easily available in the online market.

Post by Doshti Healthcare